Acute kidney failure
It’s worth mentioning that not all kidney failure is the result of a long term condition, occurring over a prolonged period. As opposed to chronic renal failure, acute renal failure can happen quite suddenly, over the course of hours or days.
Acute failure normally happens when dogs ingest toxic substances, such as antifreeze, NSAIDs, and raisins or grapes. Eating these poisons can send their bodies into toxic shock, with the kidneys becoming overwhelmed and shutting down—or sending dangerous amounts of minerals such as potassium into the bloodstream (according to Blue Pearl Vets).
Acute kidney failure can also occur when a dog’s kidneys don’t receive adequate blood flow. So severe dehydration, heatstroke, and infection can all have a negative effect on these vital organs.